History of macOS: from System 1.0 (1984) to macOS Mojave

macbook pro

Mac OS X, surely, is a software perfection and a clear example of, what the world’s best desktop operating system should look like.

But she was not always so. The whole thorny path of becoming from System 1.0 and up to macOS 10.14 mojave in this material.

For the first time, Mac OS was introduced in 1984 along with the release of the first Macintosh computer.

First Macintosh (1984)

Mac OS (Macintosh Operating System) was among the first OS, offering users a user-friendly graphical interface instead of the command line. From 1984 to 2001, the light saw versions of System 1 – Mac OS 9, which are considered to be classic. Since 2000, the operating system was named Mac OS X, and from 2016 — macOS.

System 1.0 (1984)

In System 1 version.0 Apple has implemented a user-friendly graphical interface. Already in the very first edition of the OS, the development team was able to make a clear interaction with the elements in the windowed mode. Actually, more advanced versions of the operating system differ from their «ancestor» only graphic quality and more advanced functionality.

System 2.0 – 6.0 (1985-1988)

During this period, developers have added additional features, settings and standard applications, also appeared hierarchical file system. The creators of the operating system paid special attention to its adaptation to new components and devices. In particular, developers took care of expansion slots support, peripheral devices, New processors and more capacious drives. Note, that a full-featured multitasking panel appeared only in System 5.

System 3.0

System 4.2

System 6.0

System 7.0 – 7.6 (1991-1996)

The first large-scale OS update received only after seven years of existence. Upgrade brought color interface, although many elements were still gray, some of them were colored. The developers have greatly improved the multitasking mode. Apple fixes bugs in future updates, added support for new components, implemented new programs, as own, so from third-party software developers.

System 8 (1997)

This edition was released in the summer of 1997 after, how Steve Jobs rejoined Apple. Originally intended, That the new version will continue the tradition and will be released under the numbering 7.7, however Jobs made a different decision. At that time, users could install System 7 on computers from other manufacturers. Apple decided to stop this practice and stopped releasing System 7. Since then «apple» The OS is installed exclusively on Apple devices. In the first two weeks after the release of System 8, the company sold 1,2 million copies, and in the next six months realized another three million. Remarkable, that System 8 has undergone only a few changes. for example, The company added more colors and shades to the interface elements and provided the OS with new themes and a control panel.

Mac OS 9 (1999)

October 23, 1999 released version of Mac OS 9, the latest update to classic Mac OS. Users of this edition have the opportunity to store their information and set system settings. Among the innovations should also be noted the emergence of data encryption technology Keychain, ability to work with remote servers and improved support for USB protocol. December 5, 2001 was the release of the latest update of Mac OS 9.2.2.

Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah (2000)

The first public beta of OS X became available on September 13, 2000. The cost of the distribution was $30. The official version appeared six months later.

March 24, 2001 the release of the first official version of OS X 10.0. Apple decided to take a drastic step away from the classic perception of Macintosh operating systems. A completely new Aqua user interface was demonstrated. Applications such as TextEdit were first used, View, Mail and Quicktime.

Cheetah was very hard on the gland: 128 MB of RAM (unofficial minimum 64 MB) and 800 MB of free disk space (preferably 1,5 GB) at that time were a luxury item. Subsequently, because of such stringent requirements for memory OS X 10.0 criticized (Macintosh standard memory was 64 MB of RAM).

Mac OS X 10.1 Puma (2001)

The second major launch of Mac OS X occurred only six months later — September 25, 2001. Owners of OS X 10.0 could upgrade to OS X 10.1 completely free. Since then, the Coopertin mega-corporation has made Mac OS X the default operating system for all new computers.

The focus was not on new features, but to improve system performance. There is a more convenient recording of CD and DVD, DVD playback support. Increased number of supported printers (more than 200), OpenGL (3D graphics) started working at 20% faster, and AppleScript was introduced. There are programs ColorSync 4.0 (color management) and image capture (working with images on digital cameras and scanners).

With all its advantages, Mac OS X Puma has come under serious criticism. Basically, the operating system was scolded for insufficient performance, low reliability and functionality. The work done was not enough to, to use OS X 10.1 as the primary operating system.

Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar (2002)

Added new applications, such as iChat and Address Book. A big step towards people with disabilities. There was a start screen saver: instead of a happy Mac, the Apple logo appeared in the form of a fruit.

Mac OS X 10.3 Panther (2003)


Microsoft executives were somewhat puzzled, since Apple decided to abandon Internet Explorer for Mac in favor of its own browser Safari, on the other hand — OS X 10.3 added many improvements in the area of ​​system interaction with Microsoft Windows (even appeared support for Active Directory directory service).

An important innovation was the introduction of technology Exposé, in which you can move interfering windows and delete them off the screen.

Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger (2005)

Spotlight search and widgets added to OS X (the calendar, calculator, watches and others). Added support for new equipment, including Intel processors and Apple TV set-top boxes.

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard (2007)

Between launches «Tigra» and «Leopard» passed the longest period of time. And it is clear, After all, Apple was busy launching the first iPhone with the original mobile operating system.

Mac OS X Leopard has become a truly multi-tasking multi-user OS. Of the main innovations, it is worth noting support for 64-bit applications and the emergence of a utility for backing up Time Machine data. An important innovation was the ability to install third-party operating systems using the Boot Camp utility.

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard (2009)

The main task for developers was to increase productivity and convenience when using the new OS. There was a complete rejection of the PowerPC architecture («Snow leopard» only works on Intel processors). The system has become fully 64-bit, like most of its applications.

The cost of Snow Leopard for new users was $129 and $29 for Leopard users. If the computer was purchased with Leopard installed from June 8 to December 26, 2009, then upgrade to OS X 10.6 could be just for $9,95.

Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (2011)

The eighth OS in the OS X line has received over 250 new features. Well, the king of the beasts took the throne. Over the first day of sales, over 1 million copies were downloaded. Distribution distributed through the Mac App Store for $29,99. By the way, Lion is the first operating system not distributed on CD and DVD discs. Multitasking gestures appeared, Launchpad, function «Resume», Lion Recovery Disk Assistant (System Restore) and much more.

ICloud cloud storage service was introduced for the first time.

Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion (2012)

Apple has decided to release Mountain Lion a year earlier, what was planned, thereby reducing the development cycle from two to one year (Most likely, this step was prompted by the imminent launch of the competing Windows 8). Desktop version started to take advantage of iOS features: notification center appeared, Notes, reminders, iChat has been replaced by iMessage. Tighter integration with iCloud. In total, over 200 new features were integrated. Mountain Lion is the latest feline operating system.

Mac OS X 10.9 Mavericks (2013)

Starting with OS X 10.9, Apple has moved to a new system for selecting names for their desktop OS. From now on, names are taken from California memorials. Mavericks — popular beach. An important step for Apple to create competition was the possibility of a free upgrade to OS X 10.9 and subsequent versions. Of the innovations worth noting support for multiple monitors, of tags, ICloud keychains, as well as the integration of Maps and iBooks applications.

Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite (2014)

operating system, named after Yosemite National Park, Received a radically new look with flat-screen integration and transparency effects like iOS 7 / iOS 8. The revolutionary Handoff function has appeared, wherein, for example, starting typing text in Pages on iOS, it was possible to continue working instantly on a Mac. Continuity allows you to receive and make calls directly from Mac.

Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan (2015)

In this version, developers have mainly focused on improving the stability and performance of the OS. The platform has not received any major improvements, limited to a large number of minor changes. Developers have upgraded a number of applications, including safari, Spotlight, «post office» and «Notes», but at the same time simplified the functionality of less used programs, in particular, Disk Utility.

macOS 10.12 Sierra (2016)

With the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra Apple renamed Mac OS X to macOS. This version adds support for the Siri virtual assistant, Apple Pay payment system. Besides, users had the opportunity to unlock Mac using Apple Watch smart watches.

macOS 10.13 High Sierra (2017)

September 25, 2017 was the release of macOS 10.13 High Sierra (overview). Basically, this update is only slightly different from the previous one. One of the main innovations was the new APFS file system and the implementation of the new version of the Metal 2 technology.

macOS 10.14 Mojave (2018)

Operating system macOS Mojave (overview), Californian sights traditionally in recent years, presented to the public on June 4, 2018 at the WWDC-2018 conference.

As part of the presentation, Craig Federigi answered the main question, interested in public — will Apple combine mobile and desktop OS following the example of Microsoft Windows? Answer — not, the company will continue to develop two separate systems in accordance with the specifics of iGadgets and Mac computers, but from now on, developers can relatively easily and conveniently port applications from iOS to macOS and back.

As an example, in the new macOS Mojave appeared mobile programs Promotions, news, Home and Voice Recorder. Besides, the long-awaited Dark theme of the design for comfortable work with the interface in the dark was implemented in macOS Mojave, updated Mac App Store, FaceTime group calls implemented, in the Finder there is a new menu Quick Actions and t.d.